Ritzhaupt, A. D. & Kumar, S. (2015). Knowledge and skills needed by instructional designers in higher education. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 28(3), 51 – 69.
Abstract: In this paper, we sought to address the following research question: What knowledge and skills are needed by instructional designers in higher educa- tion to be successful in their roles? We interviewed eight instructional design- ers from across the United States, all working for institutions of higher edu- cation. Using the constant comparative method, we analyzed our data to iden- tify relevant themes. Our results suggest that instructional designers in higher education must have a solid founda- tion in instructional design and learning theory, possess soft skills and technical skills, and have a willingness to learn on the job. Most instructional design- ers felt their academic backgrounds assisted them with their job roles, and, in particular, valued their professional experiences. Instructional designers in higher education must also keep abreast of multiple emerging informa- tion and communication technologies. We provide a discussion to synthesize our fi ndings. The fi ndings are relevant to professionals, professional academic programs, and professional associations.
Pringle, R., Dawson, K., & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2015). Integrating science and technology: Using TPCK as a framework to study the practices of science teachers involved in a year-long integration initiative. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 24(4), 648–662.
Abstract: In this study, we examined how teachers involved in a yearlong technology integration initiative planned to enact technological, pedagogical, and content practices in science lessons. These science teachers, engaged in an initiative to integrate educational technology in inquiry-based science lessons, provided a total of 525 lesson plans for this study. While our findings indicated an increase in technology-related practices, including the use of sophisticated hardware, very little improvements occurred with fostering inquiry-based science and effective science-specific pedagogy. In addition, our conceptual framework, technological pedagogical content knowledge, as a lens to examine teachers’ intentions as documented in their lesson plans, provided an additional platform from which to investigate technology integration practices within the ambit of reform science teaching practices. This study, therefore, contributes knowledge about the structure and agenda of professional development initiatives that involve educational technology and integration into content knowledge disciplines such as science.
Justice, L. J. & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2015). Identifying the barriers to games and simulations in education: Creating a valid and reliable survey instrument. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 44(1), 86 – 125.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument to measure teacher perceived barriers to the adoption of games and simulations in education. Previous research, interviews with educators, a focus group, a think-aloud protocol, and an expert review were used to design a survey instrument. After finalization, the survey was made available for trial on the Internet for a group of educators (N=255). A portion of the survey required respondents to rate to what degree 32 potential barriers were perceived as an impediment to the adoption of games and simulations. Some of the highest rated barriers included cost of equipment, lack of time to plan and implement, inability to try before purchasing, lack of balance between entertainment and education, lack of available lesson plans/examples, lack of alignment to state standards/standardized testing, inability to customize a game/ simulation, and inability to track student progress within the game/simulation. An exploratory factor analysis identified seven factors that accounted for 67% of the variability in the respondents’ rankings. Several factors were found to have significant interactions with other questions on the survey. Implications of these results, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.
Kang, Y. & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2015). A job announcement analysis of educational technology professional positions: Knowledge, skills, and abilities. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 43(3), 231 – 256.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to identify the competencies of an educational technologist via a job announcement analysis. Four hundred job announcements were collected from a variety of online job databases over a 5-month period. Following a systematic process of collection, documentation and analysis, we derived over 150 knowledge, skill, and ability statements from the job announcements themselves based on a conceptual framework. We coded the frequency to which the competencies occurred in each announcement and summarized the results meaningfully in our paper. Results suggest educational technologists must be competent in multiple areas, but especially in instructional design, project management, technical skills, and soft skills. Results provide compelling evidence that educational technology professionals must work with a wide variety of stakeholders in their work. The findings of our research are relevant to professionals, professional associations, and academic programs interested in competencies. A discussion for the results is provided.
Ritzhaupt, A. D. & Kang, Y. (2015). Are we ready for bachelor’s degrees in educational technology?: Perceptions from the field and a proposal. Educational Technology, 55(3), 14 – 22.
Abstract: Some in the field of educational technology have called for offering bachelor’s degrees. Unfortunately, the literature base only provides guidance on designing, developing, and delivering master and doctoral degree programs. This paper, in distinction, focuses on the design of a bachelor’s degree program by focusing on the perceptions of professionals in relation to offering a bachelor’s degree, the desired pre-requisites, and the appropriate name for such a degree program. After reviewing these data, a proposal for a bachelor’s degree is made, including the course architecture and descriptions of the related courses. The current bachelor’s degree program proposal is still under consideration at the home institution of the authors. Our hopes in sharing this proposal is to start a dialog in our community about offering such a degree program on a larger scale.