Justice, L. J. & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2015). Identifying the barriers to games and simulations in education: Creating a valid and reliable survey instrument. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 44(1), 86 – 125.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument to measure teacher perceived barriers to the adoption of games and simulations in education. Previous research, interviews with educators, a focus group, a think-aloud protocol, and an expert review were used to design a survey instrument. After finalization, the survey was made available for trial on the Internet for a group of educators (N=255). A portion of the survey required respondents to rate to what degree 32 potential barriers were perceived as an impediment to the adoption of games and simulations. Some of the highest rated barriers included cost of equipment, lack of time to plan and implement, inability to try before purchasing, lack of balance between entertainment and education, lack of available lesson plans/examples, lack of alignment to state standards/standardized testing, inability to customize a game/ simulation, and inability to track student progress within the game/simulation. An exploratory factor analysis identified seven factors that accounted for 67% of the variability in the respondents’ rankings. Several factors were found to have significant interactions with other questions on the survey. Implications of these results, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.
Kang, Y. & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2015). A job announcement analysis of educational technology professional positions: Knowledge, skills, and abilities. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 43(3), 231 – 256.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to identify the competencies of an educational technologist via a job announcement analysis. Four hundred job announcements were collected from a variety of online job databases over a 5-month period. Following a systematic process of collection, documentation and analysis, we derived over 150 knowledge, skill, and ability statements from the job announcements themselves based on a conceptual framework. We coded the frequency to which the competencies occurred in each announcement and summarized the results meaningfully in our paper. Results suggest educational technologists must be competent in multiple areas, but especially in instructional design, project management, technical skills, and soft skills. Results provide compelling evidence that educational technology professionals must work with a wide variety of stakeholders in their work. The findings of our research are relevant to professionals, professional associations, and academic programs interested in competencies. A discussion for the results is provided.
Ritzhaupt, A. D. & Kang, Y. (2015). Are we ready for bachelor’s degrees in educational technology?: Perceptions from the field and a proposal. Educational Technology, 55(3), 14 – 22.
Abstract: Some in the field of educational technology have called for offering bachelor’s degrees. Unfortunately, the literature base only provides guidance on designing, developing, and delivering master and doctoral degree programs. This paper, in distinction, focuses on the design of a bachelor’s degree program by focusing on the perceptions of professionals in relation to offering a bachelor’s degree, the desired pre-requisites, and the appropriate name for such a degree program. After reviewing these data, a proposal for a bachelor’s degree is made, including the course architecture and descriptions of the related courses. The current bachelor’s degree program proposal is still under consideration at the home institution of the authors. Our hopes in sharing this proposal is to start a dialog in our community about offering such a degree program on a larger scale.
Ritzhaupt, A. D. & Kealy W. A. (2015). On the utility of pictorial feedback in computer-based learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 525-534.
Abstract: Extensive research has added to what is known about the nature of feedback and how to best incorporate it into instruction. Yet, many questions related to learner feedback remain unanswered. One problem of practical importance is the utility of incorporating semantically related pictures into the feedback. Decades of research on feedback have largely focused on the use of verbal feedback in written instruction. This research included two experiments. The first experiment (n = 63) addressed the incorporation of pictorial feedback into instruction; the second experiment (n = 69) extended this study through the use of a more ecologically valid intervention. Results suggest that the use of pictures in feedback did not influence learning any more than text-only treatments. A discussion and recommendations for future research are provided.
Pastore, R. & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2015). Using time-compression to make multimedia learning more efficient: Current research and practice. TechTrends, 59(2), 66 – 74.
Abstract: It is now common practice for instructional designers to incorporate digitally recorded lectures for Podcasts (e.g., iTunes University), voice-over presentations (e.g., PowerPoint), animated screen captures with narration (e.g., Camtasia), and other various learning objects with digital audio in the instructional method. As a result, learners are spending more time learning from audio-enhanced digital learning materials for both formal and informal purposes. In this paper, we present digital time-compression as a way to reduce the amount of time learners will spend on a learning task, while still maintaining acceptable intelligibility, pitch, and scores on important dependent measures (e.g., recall, recognition, comprehension, satisfaction). Research dating back to the 1950s is reviewed and framed in the context of multimedia learning environments. Recent research developments are reviewed and a discussion is provided emphasizing several design principles for this technology. Recommendations for future research are provided.