Kleinheksel, A. J. & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2017). Measuring the adoption and integration of virtual patient simulations in nursing education: An exploratory factor analysis. Computers & Education, 108, 11 – 29.
Abstract: This study sought to develop a valid and reliable instrument to identify the characteristics of computer-based, interactive, and asynchronous virtual patient simulations that nurse educators identify as important for adoption, and the subsequent curricular integration strategies they employed. Once these factors were identified, this study also sought to explore any relationships between the influential features for adoption and the ways in which the adopted virtual patients are integrated. Data were collected with the Virtual Patient Adoption and Integration in Nursing (VPAIN) survey, which was completed by 178 nurse educators who were currently using, or had previously used virtual patient simulations. Both exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis were conducted. Through exploratory factor analysis, 55.6% of the variance in the VPAIN adoption subscale data was accounted for by the nine adoption factors identified: Trustworthiness, Worldbuilding, Pedagogy, Differentiation, Encouragement, Clarity, Evaluation, Administrative Pressure, and Visibility. The factor analysis also identified five factors within the integration subscale, which accounted for 53.3% of the variance: Hour Replacement, Intensive Integration, Leveling, Preparation, and Benchmarking. A correlation analysis was conducted to identify relationships between the adoption and integration factors.
Ritzhaupt, A. D., Poling, N., Frey, C., Kang, Y. & Johnson, M. (2016). A phenomenological study of games, simulations, and virtual environments courses: What are we teaching and how? International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 8(3), 59 – 73.
Abstract: Educational technology programs from across the United States are offering graduate courses in games, simulations, and virtual environments (GSVE) to their students. However, these courses, until now, have not been systematically studied. This research uses a hermeneutical phenomenological approach to answer the research question: “How do instructors describe their experience teaching GSVE courses?” Five professors of educational technology that have taught GSVE courses were interviewed using a semi-structured protocol based on the TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) framework. These data were analyzed both analytically and thematically. The results of the study showed a wide variety of topics, tools, and pedagogies are used within GSVE courses. The results had five themes emerge: Focus on Application and Theory, Experiential Learning and Constructivism, Instructor’s Prior Experience with Games, Heterogeneous Student Populations, and Range of Technology Tools. These themes as well as these courses are highlighted within this paper. A discussion is provided.
Ritzhaupt, A. D., Huggins, A. C., Madley, S., Ruggles, K. & Wilson, M. (2016). Validation of the Survey of Preservice Teachers’ Knowledge of Teaching and Technology: A multi-institutional sample. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 32(1), 26 – 37.
Abstract: The TPACK (technological pedagogical content knowledge) framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) has gained tremendous momentum from within the educational technology commu- nity. Specifically, much discourse has focused on how to measure this multidimensional construct to further define the contours of the framework and potentially make some meaningful predictions. Some have proposed observation scales while other have proposed self-report measures to gauge the phenomenon. The Survey of Pre-service Teachers ’ Knowledge of Teaching and Technology instrument is one popular tool designed to measure TPACK (Schmidt et al., 2009) specifically from preservice teachers in teacher education programs. This study extends the measurement framework by providing a confirmatory factor analysis of the theoretical model proposed by Schmidt et al. (2009) on a sample of 227 preservice teachers from four public institutions of higher education in the southeastern United States. The data did not fit the theoretical 10-factor model implied by Schmidt et al. (2009), thus, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the optimal structure of the measurement tool for these data. This resulted in a nine- factor model, and there were measurement issues for several of the constructs. Additionally, the article provides evidence of external validity by correlating the instrument scores with other known technology constructs.
Ritzhaupt, A. D. & Kumar, S. (2015). Knowledge and skills needed by instructional designers in higher education. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 28(3), 51 – 69.
Abstract: In this paper, we sought to address the following research question: What knowledge and skills are needed by instructional designers in higher educa- tion to be successful in their roles? We interviewed eight instructional design- ers from across the United States, all working for institutions of higher edu- cation. Using the constant comparative method, we analyzed our data to iden- tify relevant themes. Our results suggest that instructional designers in higher education must have a solid founda- tion in instructional design and learning theory, possess soft skills and technical skills, and have a willingness to learn on the job. Most instructional design- ers felt their academic backgrounds assisted them with their job roles, and, in particular, valued their professional experiences. Instructional designers in higher education must also keep abreast of multiple emerging informa- tion and communication technologies. We provide a discussion to synthesize our fi ndings. The fi ndings are relevant to professionals, professional academic programs, and professional associations.
Pringle, R., Dawson, K., & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2015). Integrating science and technology: Using TPCK as a framework to study the practices of science teachers involved in a year-long integration initiative. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 24(4), 648–662.
Abstract: In this study, we examined how teachers involved in a yearlong technology integration initiative planned to enact technological, pedagogical, and content practices in science lessons. These science teachers, engaged in an initiative to integrate educational technology in inquiry-based science lessons, provided a total of 525 lesson plans for this study. While our findings indicated an increase in technology-related practices, including the use of sophisticated hardware, very little improvements occurred with fostering inquiry-based science and effective science-specific pedagogy. In addition, our conceptual framework, technological pedagogical content knowledge, as a lens to examine teachers’ intentions as documented in their lesson plans, provided an additional platform from which to investigate technology integration practices within the ambit of reform science teaching practices. This study, therefore, contributes knowledge about the structure and agenda of professional development initiatives that involve educational technology and integration into content knowledge disciplines such as science.