Pictorial Feedback Article Published

Ritzhaupt, A. D. & Kealy W. A. (2015). On the utility of pictorial feedback in computer-based learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 525-534.

Abstract: Extensive research has added to what is known about the nature of feedback and how to best incorporate it into instruction. Yet, many questions related to learner feedback remain unanswered. One problem of practical importance is the utility of incorporating semantically related pictures into the feedback. Decades of research on feedback have largely focused on the use of verbal feedback in written instruction. This research included two experiments. The first experiment (n = 63) addressed the incorporation of pictorial feedback into instruction; the second experiment (n = 69) extended this study through the use of a more ecologically valid intervention. Results suggest that the use of pictures in feedback did not influence learning any more than text-only treatments. A discussion and recommendations for future research are provided.

Time-Compression Article Published

Pastore, R. & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2015). Using time-compression to make multimedia learning more efficient: Current research and practice. TechTrends, 59(2), 66 – 74.

Abstract: It is now common practice for instructional designers to incorporate digitally recorded lectures for Podcasts (e.g., iTunes University), voice-over presentations (e.g., PowerPoint), animated screen captures with narration (e.g., Camtasia), and other various learning objects with digital audio in the instructional method. As a result, learners are spending more time learning from audio-enhanced digital learning materials for both formal and informal purposes. In this paper, we present digital time-compression as a way to reduce the amount of time learners will spend on a learning task, while still maintaining acceptable intelligibility, pitch, and scores on important dependent measures (e.g., recall, recognition, comprehension, satisfaction). Research dating back to the 1950s is reviewed and framed in the context of multimedia learning environments. Recent research developments are reviewed and a discussion is provided emphasizing several design principles for this technology. Recommendations for future research are provided.

Time-Compressed Video Article Published

Ritzhaupt, A. D., Pastore, R. & Davis, R. (2015). Effects of captions and time-compressed video on learner performance and satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 222 – 227.

Abstract: Digital video is becoming increasingly popular in higher education with faculty digitally recording and broadcasting lectures for students to learn-on-demand, such as iTunes University or YouTube. Students have discovered accelerated playback features in popular computer software and use it to reduce the amount of time watching video-enhanced instruction. In the current study, 147 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of six video treatments based on a 3 Video Speed (1.0 = Normal vs. 1.25 = Fast vs. 1.50 = Very Fast) × 2 Captions (Captions Present vs. Captions Absent) × 2 Trial (Trial 1 vs. Trial 2) design. Results show no significant difference on learner performance across treatments based on Video Speed. Captions were found to have a significant negative effect on learner performance. A significant difference was found on learner satisfaction in favor of a normal Video Speed. The findings suggest that learners might be able to accelerate Video Speeds up to 1.5 times the normal speed, but are generally less satisfied with the learning experience.

What are the oldest journals in the field of Educational Technology?

I asked this question to a few of my peers, and none had a good answer, so I spent some time investigating the issue online. This may not seem like an important issue, but we now have well over 100 journals related to our field, so the question of age and quality comes to mind. My research has concluded that the following journals are the oldest in our field that are still in circulation today:

  • Educational Technology
  • Educational Technology Research and Development
  • TechTrends
  • Educational Media International
  • Journal of Research on Technology in Education
  • British Journal of Educational Technology

However, this was based solely on Internet research and may not be accurate. According my research, all of these journals were started at or before 1970 and are still in circulation today. Please note that some of these journals were previously published under different names, but still use the same volume numbers.

Website Refresh

Hello All,

After nearly nine years, I had to retire my old WordPress site. I was unable to easily update the WordPress instance with the most recent version of the software. Further, the template was getting old, so I decided to start over. I have put most of the same information on my site for you to observe. I will also be updating some of the information on the site as time is available. Thank you for following my site all these years. I promise to keep up to date information on here.


Albert Ritzhaupt